What is Life Science?


September 25, 2023

You might remember from your school days a class labelled “Life Sciences 101” or something similar. Perhaps you’ve skimmed through life sciences books without really grasping the concept. So, what is life science about?

Life science is a comprehensive field that delves into all living entities on our planet. It covers everything from microbes to plants and from dolphins to dandelions. Dive in to discover more about this vast domain and its various subfields.

Decoding Life Sciences

Life sciences, as the term indicates, explores all facets of life, whether it’s from the past or present. This encompasses animals, plants, bacteria, unicellular entities, and even the individual cells within these organisms. That’s why it’s often synonymous with biology.

Given that there are approximately 8.7 million animal species, around 400,000 plant species, and innumerable bacteria and viruses, this field provides a vast array of subjects to investigate. Many researchers within the life sciences focus on a particular group or organism, leading to numerous subspecialties. Let’s explore some primary branches:


Ecology delves deep into how organisms interact with their surrounding environments. This encompasses diverse topics such as food webs, symbiotic ties (both harmful and helpful), and intra-species connections. A significant focus of ecology is on biodiversity, tracking the population of various organisms, and understanding their spatial distribution.

At its core, this aspect of life science seeks to comprehend the intricate workings of ecosystems. Imagine these ecosystems as intricate, ever-evolving networks of life, constantly adapting and striving to maintain a fragile equilibrium. If this balance is disrupted, the entire system may be at risk. Ecosystems vary in size and complexity, from vast rainforests teeming with life to the tranquil waters of a Minnesota pond.


Botany, a vibrant offshoot of biology, dives deep into the study of plants. This field spans the study of humble organisms like lichens, grasses, and other ground flora up to majestic redwoods. Beyond these, botany also embraces the study of fungi and algae, distinct from conventional plant classifications.

Within the botanical sphere, there are numerous specialised segments. While some experts zoom into the intricacies of plant biochemistry, others merge their interests in the overlap of plant ecology – a domain bridging botany and ecological studies. Furthermore, botanists might specialise in areas like plant genetics, evolutionary patterns, physiological processes, and detailed studies on plant structure and form.


While botany dives deep into the world of plants, zoology immerses itself in the fascinating realm of animals. This branch of life science explores the diverse traits of animals, delving into aspects like their behaviours, reproduction processes, migratory tendencies, natural habitats, and much more. Interestingly, out of an estimated 8.7 million animal species globally, we’ve only discovered a fraction—around 1.2 million.

Zoology doesn’t stand alone; it intertwines with multiple scientific arenas such as palaeontology, entomology, and genetic research. Specialists in zoology often hone in on specific animal categories, be it avian species, marine life, mammals, reptiles, or several other classifications. Indeed, the expansive world of zoology branches out into numerous specialised sectors.


Entomology delves into the intricate universe of the tiny critters that inhabit our planet. Primarily centred on insect research, this discipline extends its focus to encompass arachnids, myriapods, annelids, and mollusks like snails and slugs. It’s a specialised subset of zoology, given that insects are classified within the broader animal domain.

Out of the approximately 1.2 million documented species, a staggering 900,000 are insects. These miniature marvels have an ancient lineage, tracing back over 400 million years, predating even the earliest dinosaurs. Their presence is pervasive, dotting almost every ecological niche globally.


Microbiology delves deep into the world of the minuscule, studying life’s tiniest entities – from unicellular organisms to minuscule cell clusters. This life science realm encompasses bacteria, viruses, parasites, and myriad microscopic beings that cohabit with us, both externally and internally. Historically, the elusive nature of these microorganisms made microbiology a challenging discipline, primarily due to visualisation constraints.

Viruses, for instance, have oscillated between inclusion and exclusion in microbiology discussions. Defining life is a nuanced task, and viruses often blur these lines, teetering between life’s definitions. Furthermore, it’s worth noting that traditional observation techniques fail to reveal nearly 99% of microorganisms.

Cell Biology

Cellular biology dives even deeper than microbiology, exploring the intricate systems operating within singular cells. Indeed, every cell in our body functions as a microcosm with its distinct dynamics. Recall the familiar adage from high school biology: the mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell?

Cellular biology examines the intricate mechanisms and processes of cells, from metabolic activities, replication, communication channels, to their molecular makeup. This understanding offers insights into the broader spectrum of life. It’s particularly pivotal in domains like genomics and drug development.


While botany and zoology delve into organisms in relation to their environments, physiology zeroes in on the mechanisms that sustain life. It encompasses everything from intricate organ systems, individual organs, cells, down to the molecular transactions driving life’s processes. In the eyes of physiology, you’re perceived not merely as an entity engaging with the external world or possessing complex cognitive processes, but as a sophisticated symphony of chemical reactions ensuring your survival.

Physiology extends its scope to various life forms. Be it plants, animals, humans, cells, or microbes, they all find a niche within this domain. Furthermore, physiology has deep connections with both epidemiology and drug research.


While the exploration of DNA and the genome is a modern endeavour, the roots of genetics reach back to the era of Gregor Mendel and his iconic pea plant experiments. This discipline delves into the transmission of traits and their evolutionary adjustments in response to environmental factors. Our comprehension of genetic inheritance has only deepened in contemporary times.

With DNA’s unveiling, the horizons of genetics have broadened, probing potential hereditary links for traits previously unconsidered. Today’s genetic researchers pen scientific insights investigating the possibility of hereditary connections to attributes like addiction, predisposition to cancer, innate talents, and more. Looking ahead, breakthroughs in genetic modifications might pave the way for cancer prevention.


Epidemiology is a look at the life cycles of diseases. It may seem strange to think of something like the flu as alive, but these diseases are made of tiny living organisms. Epidemiology looks at how they live, how they reproduce, how they affect humans, and how they die.

Epidemiology is the cornerstone of public health, looking at outbreak patterns of diseases, coming up with treatments and cures, and developing vaccines against them. The more we know about how these organisms live, the more we can do to prevent them from making us sick. As you might expect, epidemiology and physiology are very closely linked.


Palaeontology delves into the world of once-living creatures, particularly focusing on dinosaurs and their possible lifestyles. This field predominantly revolves around the fossil record and the invaluable insights derived from these ancient imprints.

Sitting at the crossroads of biology and geology, palaeontology doesn’t just study the rocks but seeks to interpret them as windows into our planet’s vibrant past. Through the careful examination of dinosaur fossils, palaeontologists aspire to deduce their way of life, appearance, and the circumstances of their demise.

Marine Biology

Marine biology dives deep into the vastness of oceanic life, encapsulating everything from majestic whales and diverse fish to microscopic plankton and vibrant algae. While it integrates many disciplines we’ve previously touched upon, the unique element here is its exclusive concentration on the marine environment, exploring diverse marine ecosystems, interconnected food webs, and aquatic botany.

The significance of marine biology is amplified by the prevailing belief that life on our planet took its first breath in the oceans. Remarkably, certain marine species have been swimming in our seas since the age of the dinosaurs. Moreover, some deep-sea creatures, defying conventional biological rules, present an opportunity to uncover broader laws that shape life on Earth.

Additional Branches

The vast realm of life sciences encompasses a multitude of disciplines. Fields such as biotechnology, bioinformatics, and synthetic biology delve into the intricate intersections of life and innovative technology, an intertwining relationship that continues to flourish. Astrobiology probes into the genesis and existence of life across the cosmos, inclusive of our very own planet.

Biolinguistics delves into the biological roots and evolution of communication among diverse living organisms. Through the lenses of biomechanics and biophysics, we gain insights into the unique locomotion of organisms and the revelations these movements bring. Developmental biology offers a journey from the inception at zygotes to the full bloom of adulthood.

In understanding societal behaviours and dynamics, ethology and population biology examine our collective actions and relationships. The realms of evolutionary biology and its counterpart, evolutionary developmental biology, shed light on our intricate evolutionary tapestry. Histology hones in on the cellular fabric that makes up living entities, while immunology demystifies the protective armour of our immune systems.

In the same breath, neuroscience unravels the mysteries of the intricate networks steering diverse creatures. Pharmacology investigates the interplay between drugs and our bodily systems, striving to shield us from microbial adversaries. Quantum biology deciphers quantum events in living entities, and structural biology unveils the architectural marvels of life.

Toxicology dissects the influences of various chemicals and toxins on life. Zymology is a tribute to the art of fermentation. Meanwhile, theoretical biology transcends specific biological realms, venturing into the abstract and mathematical models that underpin life’s myriad phenomena.

Why Pursue a Career in Life Science

The allure of life science lies in its vast scope and depth. It beckons with the promise of exploring all forms of life, spanning history and space. With such immense territory to cover, you’re bound to stumble upon a niche that captivates you.

Yet, even if the white coat and lab goggles aren’t for you, understanding life sciences has intrinsic value. Remember that school project on plants or animals? It wasn’t just a grade—it was a window into the intricate tapestry of existence.

Life science unfurls the mysteries of every corner of our planet, from the azure depths of the oceans to the vast expanse of the skies, from arid deserts to icy tundras, from verdant forests to towering peaks. Recognising the intricate mechanics of our environment can enrich our appreciation of its beauty and underscore its fragility. Imagine grasping the intricate web of life in a seemingly mundane pond you pass daily.

Moreover, life science mirrors the marvel within us. It narrates tales of our skeletal frames etched in cosmic dust and cells that echo celestial wonders. Every day, unbeknownst to us, our body orchestrates countless functions, each crucial to our existence. And as you navigate the familiar routine of your daily life, remember that you are a walking testament to nature’s awe-inspiring complexity.

By acknowledging the marvels in and around us, we foster deeper connections with our environment and those who inhabit it.

With 1,412 new jobs in Biotechnology alone in the UK, and 5,524 in the US, the life science industry presents a plethora of opportunities for aspirants eager to make their mark.

Life Sciences

Published on 25-09-2023